Recently, I have been asked by a number of my younger (in terms of degree, not necessarily age) friends and colleagues about how to find a postdoc, what to look for, and what questions to ask. As I am currently in my third postdoc, I feel I am somewhat an expert on how to find a mentor and what makes for a good postdoc experience, and I am honored that people think enough of me and my career to ask. So, the following are some tips based on my experiences…
Decisions, decisions, decisions.
Before you do anything else, decide if a postdoc is really for you. Sure, a postdoc seems like the next logical step. Maybe your current PI is not supportive of a career outside academia or you have dreamed your entire life of running your own lab. Whatever your circumstances are, make sure that your heart is in it. The current world economic status does not make life easy for an academic scientist. Grants are hard to come by. Faculty positions are elusive. There are plenty of hurdles that you have to jump over. It is possible to be a successful academic, but if you aren’t committed, maybe you should think about an alternative career. There are several options…medical science liaison, entrepreneur, policy, scientific writer, clinical research associate, industry, patent lawyer (with a law degree)…many of which pay more than being an academic researcher and have better hours.
Start looking early!
It is never too early to start making connections, thinking about how you would like your research career to evolve, and what you are willing to sacrifice (location?) to get what you really want (the ideal mentor? a specific research project?). This is especially important if you will be moving to a different country (you will need time to apply for the correct visas and other documents). I suggest coming up with a short list of people you would like to work for or the type of research you would like to pursue (be as specific as possible) about a year in advance, if possible. Start asking your current PI, your committee members, and other connections if they know the person or anyone at the university. Get on LinkedIn and see if you know anyone that could make an introduction. Make a point to introduce yourself at a conference and talk to their current and past students and postdocs. These are the people that will give you an honest interpretation of the laboratory environment that you’re looking to enter. Or better yet, visit RateMyPI.com to see if they have been reviewed or to search for PIs with good reviews at specific universities or by location. The more information you have the better.
Apply for your own funding.
If you have an idea for the research that you would like to do, apply for your own funding (most grants/awards have border restrictions, so be sure to check). There are several avenues to obtain funding, not just federal. Think outside the box. You are much more appealing to PIs if your salary and/or research is already covered. This might be the only way to work for your ideal PI since funding a post doctoral research takes a large chunk of funding from already tight budgets.
Get everything in writing.
You are about to graduate or have recently received your degree. You have a postdoc lined up. Things are great! Hopefully everything goes as planned, but be prepared for some bumps. Before completely committing to a postdoc (or any position, for that matter) get a signed (by you and the PI and even another authority at the university if possible/appropriate) offer letter detailing anything and everything. It should include your salary/year, the hours/week you are expected to work, the project you will be working on, the length of the commitment, the amount of paid vacation and sick days, where your funding will come from, and anything else you think might be important. It should detail what is expected of you and what is expected of your supervisor. This is not only for your benefit (you don’t want to pack up and move to another country only to realize that your new supervisor does not have the funds to support you…and I speak from experience on this one), but also for your new PIs benefit (the standards that you will be held to are spelled out). I cannot stress the importance of this enough.
I personally think that experiencing a postdoc in another country is a wonderful idea. It puts you outside your comfort zone, you get to look at your research from another point of view, you can start making worldwide collaborations, and you get a chance to travel and grow both personally and professionally. However, if you decide to do this, the day you start your new position, is the day you should be thinking about your next. Will this postdoc only last a year or two and then you will do another one? Maybe you plan on staying there longer and then go straight into a faculty/professor/research position? Whatever the case, know what will be expected of you to make the next transition. Did you know that it can be harder to obtain funding from your country of citizenship if you do not currently reside/work there, even if you are planning on returning? Even if you have a great research plan, you may need to be associated with a university in that country before you can get funded. This could mean doing another postdoc before you get funded so that you can have a strong application for that faculty position.
There you have it. That is my first round advice for researchers that will graduate soon or have recently received their PhD. Please help others by leaving your comments and let me know if there are some other questions you want answered.